We recall the teleological proof of God’s existence. The Greek word
telos means purpose. This is an argument from design. The world had to have been crafted by an intelligent, divine being, given how amazing it is.

William Paley was a big proprietor of this belief. He made an analogy between the world and a watch. All of the individual, nuanced parts come together to work harmoniously. It is so complex, yet tightly ordered.

The most merited proof of the existence of intelligent design, as it is often called, is a derivation of the teleological proof, which ironically enough, draws its strength from the laws of natural science.

This is called the “Fine-Tuned Universe” proof. It’s not complicated. It is a variant of the general, teleological proof, which states that God must exist because of the design of what exists. Evangelical Christians oftentimes adopt a part of this view, calling it “intelligent design”, and stating how the world and existence is so amazing and intricate to not have been created without intention.

When I say “fine-tuned”, it denotes an object that has been meticulously been altered, or, created, in a very specific manner. Merriam-Webster states that “fine-tune” means “to adjust precisely so as to bring to the highest level of performance or effectiveness“. Examples include fine-tuning one’s radio for the best transmission, and even giving a critical eye to draft after draft of an important essay assignment.

We are aware that there are laws in the natural sciences. There are laws in biology, chemistry, and physics.

It has come to the point, in our age of fast-improvement of technology, that biological systems are largely broken down into chemical systems, and chemical systems, to physical systems. In other words, biology is now mostly understood through breaking it down into chemistry, and chemistry has largely been broken down into laws of physics.

This proof states that all of the laws of physics have all fallen within very precise ranges, so that life can exist. If many of the physical laws that govern the universe were even a tiny bit different, it would be impossible for life to exist. Here are some examples of how small this margin is!

  • If gravity had been “one billionth of a gram heavier or lighter”
  • The creation of abundant carbon depends on the interaction of two forces (electromagnetic and strong) of such exact energy. If the strong force was 1% weaker or stronger, this wouldn’t happen.
  • If the ratio of mass between the proton and electron was altered just a bit, compounds needed to create DNA couldn’t be created. Similarly if the mass of protons was 1% lower than it is.
  • Stephen Haking: if the universe rate of expansion a second after the Big Bang was smaller by one in 100,000,000,000,000,000, the universe would have collapsed into fire via gravitational pull: no energy source would exist.
  • If the bonds between atoms had them in more close proximity, the sun would have used all of its energy up in a matter of seconds
  • Physicist P.C.W. Davies: star formation is necessary for planet formation. The odds of the former is one in “at least a thousand billion billion zeroes”.
  • The same expert determined that a change in the strength of gravity by one in 10 raised to the 100th power would have created conditions that prohibited life from forming.
  • It is not only these laws themselves, but the numerical ratios of these laws next to others, that is salient
  • Steven Weinberg asserted that there was a 0-1 in 10120 chance that all of these laws would be so exact as for life to exist.
  • There had to be no more than one part variation in 1053 for the universe to have been created after the Big Bang. 
  • When all of the apparently fine-tuned aspects of the universe are taken under consideration, the chance of stars existing was 1 in 10229.
Image result for fine-tuned universe

There are 93 instances of the very precise values of laws of physics:

  • Strong nuclear force constant
  • Weak nuclear force constant
  • Gravitational force constant
  • Electromagnetic force constant
  • Ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
  • Ratio of proton to electron mass
  • Ratio of number of protons to number of electrons
  • Ratio of proton to electron charge
  • Expansion rate of the universe
  • Mass density of the universe
  • Baryon (proton and neutron) density of the universe
  • Space energy or dark energy density of the universe
  • Ratio of space energy density to mass density
  • Entropy level of the universe
  • Velocity of light
  • Age of the universe
  • Uniformity of radiation
  • Homogeneity of the universe
  • Average distance between galaxies
  • Average distance between galaxy clusters
  • Average distance between stars
  • Average size and distribution of galaxy clusters
  • Numbers, sizes, and locations of cosmic voids
  • Electromagnetic fine structure constant
  • Gravitational fine-structure constant
  • Decay rate of protons
  • Ground state energy level for helium-4
  • Carbon-12 to oxygen-16 nuclear energy level ratio
  • Decay rate for beryllium-8
  • Ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
  • Initial excess of nucleons over antinucleons
  • Polarity of the water molecule
  • Epoch for hypernova eruptions
  • Number and type of hypernova eruptions
  • Epoch for supernova eruptions
  • Number and types of supernova eruptions
  • Epoch for white dwarf binaries
  • Density of white dwarf binaries
  • Ratio of exotic matter to ordinary matter
  • Number of effective dimensions in the early universe
  • Number of effective dimensions in the present universe
  • Mass values for the active neutrinos
  • Number of different species of active neutrinos
  • Number of active neutrinos in the universe
  • Mass value for the sterile neutrino
  • Number of sterile neutrinos in the universe
  • Decay rates of exotic mass particles
  • Magnitude of the temperature ripples in cosmic background radiation
  • Size of the relativistic dilation factor
  • Magnitude of the Heisenberg uncertainty
  • Quantity of gas deposited into the deep intergalactic medium by the first supernovae
  • Positive nature of cosmic pressures
  • Positive nature of cosmic energy densities
  • Density of quasars
  • Decay rate of cold dark matter particles
  • Relative abundances of different exotic mass particles
  • Degree to which exotic matter self interacts
  • Epoch at which the first stars (metal-free pop III stars) begin to form
  • Epoch at which the first stars (metal-free pop III stars cease to form
  • Number density of metal-free pop III stars
  • Average mass of metal-free pop III stars
  • Epoch for the formation of the first galaxies
  • Epoch for the formation of the first quasars
  • Amount, rate, and epoch of decay of embedded defects
  • Ratio of warm exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
  • Ratio of hot exotic matter density to cold exotic matter density
  • Level of quantization of the cosmic spacetime fabric
  • Flatness of universe’s geometry
  • Average rate of increase in galaxy sizes
  • Change in average rate of increase in galaxy sizes throughout cosmic history
  • Constancy of dark energy factors
  • Epoch for star formation peak
  • Location of exotic matter relative to ordinary matter
  • Strength of primordial cosmic magnetic field
  • Level of primordial magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
  • Level of charge-parity violation
  • Number of galaxies in the observable universe
  • Polarization level of the cosmic background radiation
  • Date for completion of second reionization event of the universe
  • Date of subsidence of gamma-ray burst production
  • Relative density of intermediate mass stars in the early history of the universe
  • Water’s temperature of maximum density
  • Water’s heat of fusion
  • Water’s heat of vaporization
  • Number density of clumpuscules (dense clouds of cold molecular hydrogen gas) in the universe
  • Average mass of clumpuscules in the universe
  • Location of clumpuscules in the universe
  • Dioxygen’s kinetic oxidation rate of organic molecules
  • Level of paramagnetic behavior in dioxygen
  • Density of ultra-dwarf galaxies (or supermassive globular clusters) in the middle-aged universe
  • Degree of space-time warping and twisting by general relativistic factors
  • Percentage of the initial mass function of the universe made up of intermediate mass stars
  • Strength of the cosmic primordial magnetic field1

There are responses, however, to this theory:

  • Though science can’t presently offer a probable reason for these physical laws, that doesn’t mean we won’t discover one in the future
    • Animism has been steadily debunked in favor of science
      • This is the belief that there is a mind, or, god, in a worldly formation or occurrence because we can’t explain it
      • Examples include…
        • Volcanic eruptions
        • Earthquakes
        • Tsunamis
        • Lighting and thunder
  • There are an infinite number of universes (multiverse), and that one that facilitates life was bound to be made at some point
    • Everything that could conceivably exist, does exist in a different universe
  • Maybe life could exist in environments that we don’t currently know could promote life.
  • God created this universe
    1. On purpose
    2. Through random designation of the laws of physics
Image result for multiverse fine-tuned

Sources: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fine-tuning/, https://biologos.org/common-questions/gods-relationship-to-creation/fine-tuning, https://biologos.org/common-questions/gods-relationship-to-creation/fine-tuning, https://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/teleological-argument.htm, http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/theistic-proofs/the-teleological-argument/, https://coldcasechristianity.com/2015/four-ways-the-earth-is-fine-tuned-for-life/, https://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the-fine-tuning-of-natures-laws, https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-arguments-against-the-multiverse-theory, http://teenskepchick.org/2013/01/26/philosophy-of-religion-the-teleological-argument/