This section is a mixture of worldviews and religions that I consider to be important.

Let’s go over a few viewpoints on the divine, first

Below:

PanentheismChart
https://ribhuv.wordpress.com/2017/06/03/theism-pantheism-panentheism-process-relational-panentheism/

We see another, more inclusive infographic as well, which includes some other ideas of the divine

  • Deism
    • God created the world, then walked away
    • God has no active role in the world
    • The Founding Fathers of America were mostly Deists
  • Atheism
    • There is no God
    • Theologians might counter that these people abide by Scientism
      • Science as God
    • Regardless, this is a secular religious belief
      • It would not exist without extant beliefs in the divine
Image result for Process-Relational Panentheism

On to Soft Polytheism!

https://www.quora.com/What-is-%E2%80%9Csoft%E2%80%9D-and-%E2%80%9Chard%E2%80%9D-polytheism

It seems very similar to animism, which itself has soft and hard versions

  • Soft Animism
    • Some apparently natural phenomena in the world are controlled by divine minds
  • Hard Animism
    • Everything in nature has a mind
    • This includes rocks, trees, glaciers, mountains, and so on
  • The three main Chinese belief systems
Image result for Legalism China
  • We have already gone through Confucianism.
    • Legalism
      • This belief system is somewhat self-explanatory
      • It holds that people are inherently bad
      • People are said to always act selfishly
      • No one is naturally ethical
      • People must be forced to act well
      • The benefit of the state was of paramount concern
      • People who wanted to kill were directed to join the army
      • There were laws dictating almost all behavior
        • How to talk to social superiors
        • How to deal with women
        • How to act to children
        • How to treat servants
      • Penalties for breaking any law were very harsh
        • Large monetary fines
        • Forced service in the army
        • Years in servitude to improving lublic infrastructure
      • All other philosophies were explicitly banned
        • They were branded as dangerous
        • Confucianism was heavily acted against
        • Non-legalist texts were burned
      • Han Feizi developed the belief system, largely from
        Shang Yang 
      • Britannica states that it was popular in the time-span from 475 BCE to 221 BCE
      • This may seem to be an utterly evil belief system, yet in context, during a time of civil war and anarchy, it may be understood as a reaction to what was going on in China at the time
        • Rampant lawlessness
        • 200 years of civil war
      • It became the official national belief system during the Qin Dynasty (221 – 206 BCE)
        • The people of China were very unhappy with it
Image result for Legalism China rules history'
https://slideplayer.com/slide/4443583/
  • Daoism/Taoism
    • “Dao” means “a way” or “a path”
      • This way is understood as ethical in Confucianism
      • But in Daoism, it is more so the “Way of Nature”
    • Nature can teach us the most valuable lessons
    • People are a microcosm in the whole world of Nature
      • The best actions are those that flow with the Way of Nature
      • Ideas or standards from humans ultimately cause unnatural and aggressive actions
      • Violence is the most ignorant manner of acting, which is opposite the flow of Nature
    • How must people act?
      • By wu-wei, which is known as “non-action”
      • According to Nature
      • Without undo desire, as it leads to violence in one form or another
      • The analogy of the uncarved block
        • Entirely natural
        • Entirely whole
        • Entirely simple
    • Artificial and unnecessary includes building on society and abiding by socially constructed and institutionalized norms
    • Societal morality is human, which is far inferior to The Way of Nature overall
    • Acting in accord with Dao includes spontaneity
    • Ritual is man-made and unnatural, even arrogant
      • Instead, work on te, which is positive energy derived from Nature Taoism/Daoism
    • Language is untrustworthy
      • Logic
      • Rhetoric overall
        • Logos, pathos, and ethos (logic, emotion, character)
      • Instead, tune into the processes of Nature
    • Stresses understanding the natural underpinnings of the world
    • Similarly, nature is understood as amazing and beautiful
    • Speaks of how to live a long, balanced life
    • Meditation is major manner of becoming enlightened
    • Similarly to Legalism and Confucianism, is this philosophy of religion?
    • The founder was a man named Lao-Tzu, “the elder”
      • His major work was Daodejing
      • Yet this man may have actually been several people
    • A man named Zhuangzi was another authority in Daoism
      • A book with his name was published. It is considered an amazing text 
Image result for Legalism China rules history'
  • Romanticism
    • There is a stress to return to nature
    • People can be happy in natural habitats
    • It stands against societal order
    • Romanticism was partly a reaction to The Enlightenment
      • Major scientific progress
      • A lot of progressive political literature
      • Large progress in civilization in a relatively short period of time
      • Modern ideas and thought was generated
      • Many, many geniuses
    • Focused on the individual, not on building society
      • Individual sensory experiences
      • Celebration of humans in all their imperfections in nature
      • The imagination of the individual
      • Emotion and enlightenment are of great value
        • Emotion over logic as important
      • Transcendental and great sensory experiences
      • Spirituality over rules and law
    • Reverence for folklore and cultural underpinnings
    • Asserted that materialism was unnatural and corrupting
    • Nature as amazingly beautiful
    • Value of “the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the weird, the occult, the monstrous, the diseased, and even the satanic”.
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau was the main proprietor of this philosophy
    • It was popular from the late 1700’s to the mid 1800’s
  • Platonism
    • Plato is a household name
    • Was born as a noble: Aristocles
    • Plato was taught by Socrates, and taught Aristotle
    • Plato wrote much of the philosophy of Socrates, as Socrates never published his own works
    • His school was called The Academy
    • This belief system has many similarities to Christianity, as does Confucianism
      • “Platonism was considered authoritative in the Middle Ages, and many Platonic notions are now permanent elements of Latin Christianity, as well as both Eastern and Western mysticism.”
    • His major work is Republic
      • Within, he advocates rule of society by a philosopher-king
    • His analogy of the cave
    • In being virtuous, one attains status of the ultimate good
      • Eudaimonism is an ethical tenet that holds well-being as good in itself
        • This bears resemblance to Kant’s Practical Imperative
          • Increasing the well-being of people is an end in itself
    • The soul is composed of three parts, each of which must be guided by its own virtue
      • These virtues must be overseen by justice
      • Moderation and self-control are highly stressed
      • 1. Reason
        • Rule by wisdom
      • 2. Spirit
        • Rule by courage
      • 3. Appetite
        • Rule by moderation
    • Theory of forms
    • When people act ethically, they touch an aspect of the divine
    • All knowledge is innate, or, known without any experience
      • Learning is when one finds a piece of knowledge within themselves
      • Perfect goodness is the foundation for all other knowledge
      • All knowledge can be found if a group of smart people talk among themselves for a long enough time
        • This is through the Socratic method
        • It bears resemblance to Hegel’s Dialectic
          • Thesis, then Antithesis, then Synthesis (which becomes the new Thesis), and so on
    • Plotinus, a later Platonist philosopher, wrote of Neo-Platonism.
Image result for plato info
http://akross.info/?k=Greek+Philosophy+Plato+the+Philosopher+Truth+Reality+of
  • Aristotelianism
    • Aristotle’s philosophical beliefs
    • Deviation from those of his teacher: Plato
    • Opened a school called The Lyceum
    • Wrote of many topics
      • Examples: logic, ethics, biology, political science, astronomy, metaphysics
    • Believed in Teleology
      • Everything has a design and purpose
    • His logic dominated philosophy until the 1800’s
      • Deduction and the Syllogism: one major truth makes all individual instances apply to that truth
    • Taught that intellectualism leads to great happiness
      • Next, virtue
    • He wrote about gravity
Related image
https://slideplayer.com/slide/9270242/
  • Aristotle, continued…
    • Nicomachean Ethics named for his son, Neomachus, whom was slain in battle
      • Being ethical is practical
      • Being ethical lies in actually practicing ethics, not just learning about ethics
      • Virtue is substantiated by reason
      • Mankind is rational
      • The Golden Mean
        • Equidistant between polarities
        • Found in many, many other religions and belief systems
    • People have a natural proclivity for politics
    • The best life is one lived in a self-governed society with a set of individual freedoms
      • A constitution, or, set of rules and rights, exists for every person
        • Contains participation from citizens, aristocracy, and leadership
      • This political order lays the foundation for individual happiness
    • There are two phenomena in the world
      • Matter
        • Can be observed, sensed, and occur in quantity
      • Form
        • Abstract and can’t be observed
      • Matter and Form can’t be separated, and only occur together
    • Taught that everyone should endeavor to be the best that they can in their specific place in society
      • Example: a baker ought to make the best bread they can, a politician ought to represent the people to the highest extent, and the slave ought to be the most useful and valuable at their assigned duties
      • Aristotle didn’t speak out against slavery as Epicurus did
    • His father was personal physician to the leader of Macedon
    • Aristotle ended up being the personal teacher of Alexander the Great
Related image
https://infograph.venngage.com/p/180843/aristotle-project
  • Stoicism
    • Influenced by the thought of Socrates and of the Cynics
    • Influenced the development of Christianity
    • Also influenced Rene Descartes and Baruch de Spinoza
    • Amazingly, has been drawn on in developing the current Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) therapy method
    • People are supposed to be strong
    • Ethical actions lead to happiness
      • More so, they are necessary to be happy
    • An everyday guide to acting based on meta-physics and science
    • The goal is a tranquil mind-state
    • Knowledge to be discovered should aim to a moral application
    • Reason leads to value
    • The world is inherently virtuous
    • The world is material, but it can be broken down as far as righteousness and otherwise virtue, which is the building block in nature
      • Humans should aim to conform to this idea of what nature is
    • People should be active in society
      • Do their duties
      • Act in a just manner
      • Neither showing mercy nor pity
      • But should embrace brotherhood
    • The world is one whole
    • All queries should aim to produce moral effects
    • There is loyalty towards one’s society
    • Service to society is valued
    • Founded by Zeno of Citium in the 3rd century BCE
    • This belief system originated in Ancient GreeceFound a following later, during the reign of the Roman Empire
      • Marcus Aurelius, emperor during the Golden Age of Rome (the Pax Romana), was a prominent stoic
        • Published material not considered very insightful
        • His personal diary, though, was published to wide acclaim
        • A work that I recommend after The Analects of Confucius, his remarkable book is called Meditations
        • Aurelius lamented the killing of people that he had to commit during this period
        • Meditations betrays a thoughtful, insightful, and informed persona
        • Aurelius is somewhat of a mystic, similarly to Daoist, in remarking on the sublime aspects of Nature
        • He has a clearly perceptible, morally guided ethical code, despite having perhaps the greatest power the world had ever seen at the time
Image result for Stoicism marcus aurelius
  • Mysticism
    • From the root word “mystery”
    • The world isn’t something to be understood scientifically or otherwise materially
    • All three Abrahamic religions have mystic sects
    • Stresses finding peace and closure
    • Meditation is a widely-promoted action
    • Finding inner contentment, a balance in life, is better than serving as a cog in the machine of society
    • Stresses sensory, or, phenomenal, experiences
      • Altered states of consciousness
      • Absorbing the beauty of nature
      • Perhaps involving a direct feeling of confrontation with divinity
      • Two kinds of mystical experience
        • Wide
          • A super-sensory experience during which realities of existence are revealed through sublime experience such that normal sense can’t engulf
        • Narrow
          • A particular kind of wide mystical experience
          • A super-sensory experience during which unitive aspects of existence are revealed, which normal sensory experience can’t fathom
          • Everything becomes one whole
      • Extrovertive and introvertive mystic experiences
        • Extrovertive
          • Content is perceived outside of self
          • Sudden experience of confornting the divine in one’s setting
        • Introvertive
          • The divine accessed by not using one’s senses
          • God experienced through a feeling of “nothingness”
      • Dualistic and Monistic mystical experience
        • Dualistic
          • There is the experiencer and the divine existing separately
        • Monistic
          • Everything is perceived as a whole
          • The highest form of narrow mystic experience
      • Theurgic mysticism involves an attempt to create a mystical experience, as opposed to a spontaneous mystical experiences
    • Two other forms of mysticism, which not need be exclusive
      • Kataphatic mysticism
        • Positives are used to describe the divine
      • Apophatic mysticism
        • One can only describe what the divine is not (negatives)
    • Understands that reality can’t be expressed in a formal manner
    • These experiences are paradoxical
      • Usually contrary to expectation
      • Language to describe it may sound ridiculous
    • Perrenialism and construtivism
      • Perrenialism
        • Across societies and cultures across the world, mystical experiences are similar to almost exactly alike
      • Construtivism
        • Soft version: mystical experience depends on some concepts inculcated by one’s culture
        • Hard version: One’s culture is entirely at play in mystical experience
    • Pure conscious events
      • All knowledge and sensory experience temporary leaves during mystical experiences
      • Critics against pure conscious events
        • The experience of the divine is knowledge and sensory experience itself, we may just not remember it as such
        • Content doesn’t empty out, the focus is just completely on the divine
        • We may just be unconscious during these events
    • Written about profusely by the famous psychologist William James
Image result for proverb william james
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/365143482265529903/?lp=true
  • Hedonism
    • From the ancient Greek word for pleasure
    • The word in laymen’s terms means something different than in philosophical terms
      • Society understands the definition to be something along the lines of “focusing on increasing one’s pleasure above all”
    • All hedonists hold that, in totality, pleasure is good, and that pain is bad
    • Pleasure=valuable
    • Pain=non-valuable
    • Psychological and motivational hedonsim
      • We are motivated just by pleasure and pain
      • This is in exclusivity
    • Ethical or evaluative hedonism
      • Only pleasure is of value, and only pain does not have value
      • We have a moral obligation to maximize pleasure and minimize pain
      • The ancient Greek Epicurus was a major ethical hedonist
        • My dissertation on his philosophy, pitted against American nationalism, can be found here
        • His school, The Garden, was open to everyone as equals, including slaves and women
        • The Tetrapharmakon!
          • 1. The gods pose no harm
            • Any perfect being would have no negative feelings or actions, including exacting vengeance on people
          • 2. Have no fear of death
            • When you are present, death is not
            • When death is present, you are not
          • 3. What is evil, is endurable
            • It passes with time
            • There is no reason to focus on it
          • 4. What is good is easy to come by
            • Static pleasures
              • Just enough to get by
              • No spikes in pleasure
              • Thus, achieve ataraxiacalmness untroubled by mental or emotional disquiet”
        • Kinetic pleasures are to be avoided
          • Large spikes in pleasure
          • Will lead to pain in the same degree
          • Can never sate the individual
          • Artifical, interrupting true happiness
            • Drunkeness
            • Partying
            • Highly sugared foods
            • Exhilarating experiences
        • Even to his dying day, suffering from a large kidney stone, Epicurus wrote a happy letter to one of his friends
      • Lucretius, a later Roman philosopher, was the second main Epicurean philosopher
        • His work, On Nature, can be had for cheap
    • Many contributors!
      • Plato
      • Aristotle
      • Epicurus
      • Saint Thomas Aquinas
      • David Hume
      • John Stuart Mill
      • Friedrich Nietzsche
      • Thomas Moore
Related image
https://www.azquotes.com/quote/647245
  • Cynicism
    • Popularly known as thinking that the world is evil and that there is never any pure good and morality
    • Total opposition to advanced society
    • Ethically speaking, live life in accord with nature
    • Live free, self-sufficiently, and with reason
    • Socializing with others sets one up to act against nature
    • Societal conventions are understood as absurd
    • Living impoverished is actually preferred, embracing hardship
      • Thus one can ridicule the manner by which most in society live
    • Allegiance is to the universe, not one’s city-state
      • This may not seem so strange, but citizenship to one’s city-state in the Hellenistic time period was thought of as invaluable
      • Abide by cosmopolitanism: the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, are (or can and should be) citizens in a single community
        • All are thus made more equal
        • Can live by nature, not by rules of government
      • Widely propagated by the Greek Diogenes of Sinope
        • Lived in an empty wine barrel
        • Mimicked the dog
          • Ate raw meat
          • Urinated and defecated in public
          • Lived in an empty wine barrel
        • Visited by Alexander the Great
          • Told that he could have any one wish
          • Diogenes told him to get out of his sunlight
        • Once, widely cheered in front of an audience
          • Promptly squated down to defecate
        • When asked what he would wish be done with his body after he died, he answered: throw me off the city walls
          • When asked why, he answered: I couldn’t care, I’d be dead!
        • Influenced the stoics, whom came later than them
Image result for diogenes in wine barrel
Here we see Diogenes telling Alexander the Great off
  • Skepticism
    • A notion appearing with prominence during The Enlightenment
      • Michel de Montaigne, the famous French skeptic philosopher
        • Wrote a book of short essays simply called Essays
          • It was not categorized, published in the chronology of when it was written
          • The book title inaugurated the word “essay” into everyday syntax
          • Of a few pages to tens of pages, they go over various topics and beleifs
          • Much of the time, ancient Greek and Roman stories, ideas, and prominent people were taken into account
          • He analyzes many quotes
          • His essays don’t usually follow a concrete path
          • He often goes off on tangents, muses, and otherwise off-topic discussions
        • His opinions are expressed, oftentimes critique
        • There was a fair amount of negativity expressed
        • His topics of questioning were groundbreaking
        • Intellectualism and informality met with his works
        • Rejected common beliefs that were general and abstract in search for truth
        • Foreign norms an be imposed on people without consent or logic
        • Imagery of the front room and the back room
          • Front room faces the street (and society), involving interaction with other people
          • Back room is one’s self in privacy, affirming existence and reflecting on life
        • Learning from other is important
          • Travel around
          • Read history books
          • Converse with friendly people
            • It is necessary to have friends!
        • Love leads to emotional slavery and inhibits freedom
          • Montaigne may be thought of as a misogynist, one interpretation of his words
        • Thought that the inhabitants of the “New World” were superior to Western Europeans, the latter dubbed “barbarians”
          • Was a cultural relativist
          • Thought those of the “New World” lived in-line with nature and dignity
        • One should be involved with public service, but not imposing on the freedom of anyone
        • Concrete experience is of value over abstractions
        • Intellectual ans social conversation is important, too
          • Similarly, judge things independently, without being told that something is or isn’t
        • His ideas were not taken from other thinkers
          • Tolerance
          • Accepting oneself
          • Being honest and frank
        • Accepting oneself in all one’s strengths, limitations, and comprehensiveness, is of utmost importance
      • He lived in the 16th century CE, early on in The Enlightenment
    • Something must be proven before believed
    • Something must stand up to scrutiny
Image result for Skepticism proverb montaigne
https://quotes.thefamouspeople.com/michel-de-montaigne-253.php
  • Transcendentalism
    • This philosophy is not transcendental idealism (an idea of existence proposed by Immanuel Kant).
    • Founded in the United States!
      • Early to late 1800’s
    • Stress: the unspeakable beauty of nature
    • People have knowledge that supersedes the senses
      • From creativity and bar intuition
    • Every person has their own truths
    • Adherents aren’t religious beliefs, but an understanding of existence
    • Spending several hours in experience of the beauty of a pond
    • Women deserve equality
    • Spoke harshly against organized religion, social norms, government, and industrialization
    • Held true that humans could reach supremely high potential
    • Imagination over reason
    • Creativity over theorizing
    • Action over thought
    • Nathaniel Hawthorne
    • Henry David Thoreau
      • Admired his friend Emerson
      • Described as a bit strange, fairly gentle, and pretty stubborn
      • Built a hut to live in next to Walden Pond
        • Lived self-sufficiently
        • Asserted that nature is uniting
        • Spoke against accruing wealth and abiding by social rules
        • Was an early individualist
        • Had a marked humanistic bent
          • Humanism holds that people are enough to sustain, and ultimately save, themselves, absent of a divinity
        • “all good things are wild and free”
      • Perhaps the first to practice civil disobedience
        • Influenced Gandhi
        • Influenced Dr. Martin Luther King, jr.
      • Didn’t pay his poll tax
        • Ostensibly, because he didn’t want war with Mexico
    • Ralph Waldo Emerson
      • Wrote a book urging America to not try to emulate Western Europe, but to proceed independently
      • People are good by nature
      • There is no limit to what any person can accomplish
      • Contemplate nature and art to answer persistent and major life questions
Related image
https://www.brainyquote.com/authors/henry_david_thoreau
  • Shintoism
    • Japanese
    • Can also be thought of as cultural manner, in addition to as a religion
    • Interestingly: no founder, no sacred texts, no involved belief system
      • It doesn’t call for a certain way of living
      • It doesn’t explicitly state a manner of how things function
      • The focus is on communicating with the kami
    • Means “the way of the gods”At least as ancient as 1000 BCE
      • But has at least five million followers presently
    • Spirits, or, kami, imbibe nature with life
      • Both biotic (living organisms) and abiotic (non-living) natural features
      • The most important is the sun goddess Amaterasu
        • Beleived to be the ancestor of Japanese emperors
        • A special shrine for her is in Ise, Japan
          • The most important shrine
      • Inari is another important kami
        • Produces rice
        • Rice is heavily used in Japan
      • Izanami (female) and Izanagi (male) are kami that created the world
        • They birthed many other kami
        • Izanami exemplifies yin
        • Izanagi exemplifies yang
        • Yin and Yang are the two overall natural forces
          • They balance each other out
          • In fact, each kami has a polar opposite to balance things
    • Priests can be of either gender
    • Worship at shrines, usually found in a beautiful natural setting
      • Some people have small shrines in their houses
      • These shrines have an archway, called a torii
        • The torii is thought to separate the world of the shrine from the world otherwise
      • Every year, each shrine has a celebration (Matsuri)
        • Kami are honored
        • People feast and drink
        • Rituals
        • Performances
        • Sumo wrestling
        • Lots of activity
        • Sounds, colors, and brightness
    • Only priests can enter the “inner hall” of the shrine
    • Before entering the prayer hall
      • Mouths rinsed
      • Hands washed
    • In the prayer hall
      • Kami are summoned with a bell after offering rice or currency
      • Then worshipers bow twice and clap twice in welcome, then bows one more time
    • People can be both Shinto and Buddhist
    • Japan is understood as the one and only divine land
    • Japan is populated by gods
    • Japanese people directly descend from gods
    • As follows, Japanese are thought of as the most superior humans
    • Was used with a fascist connotation during World War I
Image result for Shintoism
https://www.viator.com/en-PH/tours/Kyoto/Private-Scholar-led-Kyoto-Walking-Tour-Shintoism-and-Buddhism-in-Japan/d332-5411KYO76541
  • Capitalism/Socialism/Communism
    • Unilinealism: society proceeds from a primitive state to an enlightened state
      • Communism to Socialism to Capitalism
      • Or, Capitalism to Socialism to Communism
    • Capitalism
      • Inspired by lassaiz-faire, French for “hands-off”
      • In anthropological terms: the government does not intervene in the private sector to protect the buyer
      • More realistically: government does little in intervening into the private sector
      • The word “liberty” has, fairly recently, been used to justify economic variables without government stepping in
        • These people are usually deemed “neoliberals” or “neoconservatives”
      • The most Capitalistic modern society was in Chile
        • Everything was privatized
          • Such as water
        • The country collapsed into itself
        • The experiment was a failure
      • The United States has a much more Capitalistic government than Western and Northern European countries
    • Socialism
      • In anthropological terms: the government intervenes in private economic transactions to protect the buyer
        • In this sense, save for the disastrous Chilean experiment, every modernized country is Socialist.
      • Still a word that carries a negative connotation in the United States
      • Much of Western and Northern Europe is Socialist
      • Such legislation includes social welfare
        • Public insurance
        • Unemployment benefits
        • Food stamps
        • Section 8 housing
        • Free rides to appointments
        • Sliding-scale public health institutions
      • Another, more directly economic idea in Socialism, is the creation of unions
Related image
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JrOPKysCOFA
  • Communism
      • More of a prophesy, or, guess of the future, than political idea
      • There are workers and bosses
        • The bosses control the money, therefore control the workers
        • The workers depend on their bosses for money
        • The workers can collectively set down their tools and overpower their bosses
      • People all come to the same conclusion to refuse to work unless conditions are more humane
      • Collective agreement is key
      • “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs”
      • Karl Max and Friedrich Engels composed The Communist Manifesto in detailing the system, 1848
      • In reality, Communism, ironically, has become a cover image for fascist regimes
        • The USSR
          • Joseph Stalin
        • China
          • Mao Zedong
Image result for Communism
https://www.museumofcommunistterror.com/
Image result for Capitalism
  • Sikhism
    • Based on the teachings of Guru Nanak and his nine disciples
    • Monotheistic
      • God is of no gender
      • God has no form
      • God can be accessed by every Sikh
      • God thinks everyone to be equal, in absolute terms
      • God decrees that people conduct their lives with honesty, integrity, morality, and in concert with their community
      • God is in everyone
        • Even in the most evil of people
        • This is understood to mean that all people can change for the better
      • Superstitions are without value
      • One can’t know God in entirety, but can feel God while under the influence of loving and worshiping and concentrating on the divine
        • One’s world and soul will help them become closer to God
        • The nature of God is in understanding God’s divine order of existence
      • Materialism and too much self-indulgence obstruct one from the view of God
      • There are ways to find God externally
        • Observe creation
        • Understand that the universe exists because God willed it to
        • The Gurus have related what God is
        • Scripture teaches of God
    • The good life
      • Commit altruistic deeds
        • Gets rid of ego
        • Gets rid of pride
      • Don’t be a slave to religion
      • Ordinary life does not move one away from God
      • Perhaps serve the community in the Gurdwara
      • It is necessary to care for those of ill health and little means 
      • Meditate on God
      • Three duties
        • Always keep God in mind
        • Live honestly and without exploiting people
        • Give to charity
      • Five vices
        • Lust
        • Greed
        • Pride
        • Anger
        • Materialism
    • There is a cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth
      • Just as in Hinduism and Buddhism
    • Karma determines the qualities of one’s next life
      • The ultimate ideal is to move out of the cycle, uniting with and knowing God entirely
      • Again, very similar to Hinduism and Buddhism
    • Center: know and contact God
      • Achieve mukti by persistent attention on God, as opposed to on self
      • Scripture and the teachings of Guru Nanak and his nine disciples tell how to best do this
    • Acting in a moral manner is greater than carrying out ritual
    • Always realize and keep God, emotionally and cognitively
    • Be honest with others
    • Be a hard worker in one’s sector
    • Everyone is equal
    • Give to those of lesser means
    • Otherwise help other people out
    • Worship is in a Gurdwara
    • Guru Granth Sahib is the name of the Sikh scripture
      • It is said to be alive
      • If answers cannot be found within the text, decide as a community, keeping scripture in mind
    • First created in Punjab (India and Pakistan) in the 16th century
    • There are 20 million Sikhs in the world
Image result for Sikhism

Guru Nanak: founder of Sikhism

Sources: https://www.ancient.eu/Legalism/, https://slideplayer.com/slide/4443583/, https://www.iep.utm.edu/daoism/, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/china_1000bce_daoism.htm, https://www.britannica.com/art/Romanticism, https://www.iep.utm.edu/stoicism/, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Stoicism, https://www.britannica.com/topic/mysticism, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mysticism/, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/hedonism/, https://www.iep.utm.edu/hedonism/, https://www.iep.utm.edu/cynics/, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Michel-de-Montaigne, http://www.ushistory.org/us/26f.asp, https://www.uri.org/kids/world-religions/shintoism, https://www.gotquestions.org/Shintoism.html, https://worldreligions.wordpress.ncsu.edu/shintoism/, http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/sikhism/ataglance/glance.shtml, https://slideplayer.com/slide/12925467/, https://steemit.com/longarticle/@aureliusdares/marcus-aurelius-the-stoic-way-mastering-cynism-with-nerves-of-steel, http://colette-windflowers.blogspot.com/2016/12/diogenes-his-barrel-and-his-brutal.html, https://www.indiatoday.in/lifestyle/culture/story/guru-nanak-jayanti-gurpurab-quotes-festival-birthday-sikhs-india-lifest-1075776-2017-11-04, Professor David Galezo, https://www.philosophybasics.com/movements_platonism.html, https://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_eudaimonism.html, https://www.philosophybasics.com/movements_aristotelianism.html, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Aristotelianism