• Systematic review: 52 neuroimaging experiments
    • comprehensive data extraction”
    • “long-term meditation practice is associated with an enhancement of cerebral areas”: attention
  • Meta-analysis: 78 fMRI’s and PET’s
    • “patterns are congruent with the psychological and behavioral aims of each practice”
  • Meta-analysis: 57 MRI studies
    • Better “processing self-relevant information, self-regulation, focused problem-solving, adaptive behavior, and interoception”
    • “functional and structural brain modifications in expert meditators, especially in areas involved in self-referential processes such as self-awareness and self-regulation.”
    • “A biological substrate underlies the positive pervasive effect”
    • “meditation techniques could…prevent disease.”
  • Systematic review of all (2017 and older) systematic reviews and meta-analyses on mindfulness and PTSD
    • In PTSD: “hyperactivation of the amygdala and hypoactivation of [the frontal lobe]”
    • “[meditation] increases activity in prefrontal regions (e.g., mPFC) and reduc[es] activity in limbic regions (e.g., amygdala)” – “restoring top-down modulation of limbic regions”
    • “enhanced prefrontal cognitive control and [less] activity in limbic structures”
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 neuroimaging studies
    • “consistent and medium-sized brain structure differences”
    • “eight brain regions consistently altered”
      • “meta-awareness…exteroceptive and interoceptive body awareness…memory consolidation…self and emotion regulation…and intra- and interhemispheric communication”